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Capability Maturity Model (CMM): A five level staged framework that describes the key elements of an effective software process. The Capability Maturity Model covers bestpractices for planning, engineering and managing software development and maintenance.[CMM] See also Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI).
Capability Maturity Model Integration (CMMI): A framework that describes the key elements of an effective product development and maintenance process. The Capability Maturity Model Integration covers best-practices for planning, engineering and managing product development and maintenance. CMMI is the designated successor of the CMM.
[CMMI] See also Capability Maturity Model (CMM).
capture/playback tool: A type of test execution tool where inputs are recorded during manual testing in order to generate automated test scripts that can be executed later (i.e.replayed). These tools are often used to support automated regression testing.
capture/replay tool: See capture/playback tool.
CASE: Acronym for Computer Aided Software Engineering.
CAST: Acronym for Computer Aided Software Testing. See also test automation.
cause-effect graph: A graphical representation of inputs and/or stimuli (causes) with their associated outputs (effects), which can be used to design test cases.
cause-effect graphing: A black box test design technique in which test cases are designed from cause-effect graphs. [BS 7925/2]
cause-effect analysis: See cause-effect graphing.
cause-effect decision table: See decision table.
certification: The process of confirming that a component, system or person complies with its specified requirements, e.g. by passing an exam.
changeability: The capability of the software product to enable specified modifications to be implemented. [ISO 9126] See also maintainability.
change control: See configuration control.
change control board: See configuration control board.
checker: See reviewer.
Chow's coverage metrics: See N-switch coverage. [Chow]
Classification tree: A tree showing equivalence parititions hierarchically ordered, which is used to design test cases in the classification tree method. See also classification tree method.
classification tree method: A black box test design technique in which test cases, described by means of a classification tree, are designed to execute combinations of representativesof input and/or output domains. [Grochtmann]
code: Computer instructions and data definitions expressed in a programming language or in a form output by an assembler, compiler or other translator. [IEEE 610]
code analyzer: See static code analyzer.
code coverage: An analysis method that determines which parts of the software have been executed (covered) by the test suite and which parts have not been executed, e.g. statement coverage, decision coverage or condition coverage.
code-based testing: See white box testing.
co-existence: The capability of the software product to co-exist with other independent software in a common environment sharing common resources. [ISO 9126] See also portability.
commercial off-the-shelf software: See off-the-shelf software.
comparator: See test comparator.
compatibility testing: See interoperability testing.
compiler: A software tool that translates programs expressed in a high order language into their machine language equivalents. [IEEE 610]
complete testing: See exhaustive testing.
completion criteria: See exit criteria.
complexity: The degree to which a component or system has a design and/or internal structure that is difficult to understand, maintain and verify. See also cyclomatic complexity.
compliance: The capability of the software product to adhere to standards, conventions or regulations in laws and similar prescriptions. [ISO 9126]
compliance testing: The process of testing to determine the compliance of the component or system.
component: A minimal software item that can be tested in isolation.
component integration testing: Testing performed to expose defects in the interfaces and interaction between integrated components.
component specification: A description of a component?s function in terms of its output values for specified input values under specified conditions, and required non-functional behavior (e.g. resource-utilization).
component testing: The testing of individual software components. [After IEEE 610]
compound condition: Two or more single conditions joined by means of a logical operator (AND, OR or XOR), e.g. A B AND C
concrete test case: See low level test case.
concurrency testing: Testing to determine how the occurrence of two or more activities within the same interval of time, achieved either by interleaving the activities or by simultaneous execution, is handled by the component or system. [After IEEE 610]
condition: A logical expression that can be evaluated as True or False, e.g. A>B. See also test
condition.
condition combination coverage: See multiple condition coverage.
condition combination testing: See multiple condition testing.
condition coverage: The percentage of condition outcomes that have been exercised by a test suite. 100% condition coverage requires each single condition in every decision statement to be tested as True and False.
condition determination coverage: The percentage of all single condition outcomes that independently affect a decision outcome that have been exercised by a test case suite.100% condition determination coverage implies 100% decision condition coverage.
condition determination testing: A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute single condition outcomes that independently affect a decision outcome.
condition testing: A white box test design technique in which test cases are designed to execute condition outcomes.
condition outcome: The evaluation of a condition to True or False.
confidence test: See smoke test.
configuration: The composition of a component or system as defined by the number, nature,and interconnections of its constituent parts.
configuration auditing: The function to check on the contents of libraries of configuration items, e.g. for standards compliance. [IEEE 610]
configuration control: An element of configuration management, consisting of the evaluation, co-ordination, approval or disapproval, and implementation of changes to configuration items after formal establishment of their configuration identification. [IEEE 610]
configuration control board (CCB): A group of people responsible for evaluating and approving or disapproving proposed changes to configuration items, and for ensuring implementation of approved changes. [IEEE 610]
configuration identification: An element of configuration management, consisting of selecting the configuration items for a system and recording their functional and physical characteristics in technical documentation. [IEEE 610]
configuration item: An aggregation of hardware, software or both, that is designated for configuration management and treated as a single entity in the configuration management process. [IEEE 610]
configuration management: A discipline applying technical and administrative direction and
surveillance to: identify and document the functional and physical characteristics of a configuration item, control changes to those characteristics, record and report change processing and implementation status, and verify compliance with specified requirements.[IEEE 610]
configuration management tool: A tool that provides support for the identification and control of configuration items, their status over changes and versions, and the release of baselines consisting of configuration items.
configuration testing: See portability testing.
confirmation testing: See re-testing.
conformance testing: See compliance testing.
consistency: The degree of uniformity, standardization, and freedom from contradiction among the documents or parts of a component or system. [IEEE 610]
control flow: A sequence of events (paths) in the execution through a component or system.control flow analysis: A form of static analysis based on a representation of sequences of events (paths) in the execution through a component or system.
control flow graph: An abstract representation of all possible sequences of events (paths) in
the execution through a component or system.
control flow path: See path.
continuous representation: A capability maturity model structure wherein capability levels provide a recommended order for approaching process improvement within specified process areas. [CMMI]
conversion testing: Testing of software used to convert data from existing systems for use in
replacement systems.
cost of quality: The total costs incurred on quality activities and issues and often split into prevention costs, appraisal costs, internal failure costs and external failure costs.
COTS: Acronym for Commercial Off-The-Shelf software. See off-the-shelf software.
coverage: The degree, expressed as a percentage, to which a specified coverage item has been
exercised by a test suite.
coverage analysis: Measurement of achieved coverage to a specified coverage item during test execution referring to predetermined criteria to determine whether additional testing is required and if so, which test cases are needed.
coverage measurement tool: See coverage tool.
coverage item: An entity or property used as a basis for test coverage, e.g. equivalence partitions or code statements.
coverage tool: A tool that provides objective measures of what structural elements, e.g.statements, branches have been exercised by a test suite.
custom software: See bespoke software.
cyclomatic complexity: The number of independent paths through a program. Cyclomatic complexity is defined as: L = N + 2P, where
- L = the number of edges/links in a graph
- N = the number of nodes in a graph
- P = the number of disconnected parts of the graph (e.g. a called graph and a subroutine)
[After McCabe]
cyclomatic number: See cyclomatic complexity.
character code
A number that represents a particular character in a set, such as the ASCII character set.
Class
The formal definition of an object. The class acts as the template from which an instance of an object is created at run time. The class defines the properties of the object and the methods used to control the object's behavior.
Class module
A module containing the definition of a class (its property and method definitions).
Collection
An object that contains a set of related objects. An object's position in the collection can change whenever a change occurs in the collection; therefore, the position of any specific object in the collection may vary.
Comment
Text added to code by a programmer that explains how the code works. In Visual Basic Scripting Edition, a comment line generally starts with an apostrophe ('), or you can use the keyword Rem followed by a space.
Comparison operator
A character or symbol indicating a relationship between two or more values or expressions. These operators include less than (<), less than or equal to (<=), greater than (>), greater than or equal to (>=), not equal (<>), and equal (=).

Is is also a comparison operator, but it is used exclusively for determining if one object reference is the same as another.
Constant
A named item that retains a constant value throughout the execution of a program. Constants can be used anywhere in your code in place of actual values. A constant can be a string or numeric literal, another constant, or any combination that includes arithmetic or logical operators except Is and exponentiation. For example:
Const A = "MyString"

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